- Feb 26, 2018 -
Furniture is an indispensable tool in people's life. With the continuous improvement of human spiritual civilization and material civilization, the furniture industry has made a great leap forward, and the furniture materials are constantly innovating.
Furniture material is the material carrier of furniture form and function, so the development of material is decisive to the change of furniture.
The chair is one of the most important kinds of furniture.
In the past 150 years, the change of chair and the development of construction technology are synchronous, reflecting the change of social needs and interests, so that it can be regarded as a condensed design history.
As George Nelson (George Nelson) in 1953 points out: "a truly original idea -- every design innovation, each kind of new material application, each furniture technology invention can get the most vivid expression on the chair."
In view of the particularity of the chair, this paper intends to explore the change of furniture brought about by the development of furniture materials by the chair.
Modern furniture material increases with the progress of science and technology, and almost all furniture material is applied to the design of chair.
The richness of the chairs presented in front of people is due to the abundance of materials.
We can understand the relationship between furniture material and chair design from two aspects: on the one hand, the development of materials and the relationship of functional development of chairs.
In the history of material development, the development of materials has always been closely linked with people's creative activities.
In the modern society, although people's material life has been greatly improved, but people still hope that through the development and application of materials, make full use of the performance characteristics of materials, to improve the quality of our products or to achieve some kind of new functional requirements, so as to further improve the quality of people's lives.
Therefore, in the design, the development and application of new materials is an important factor to improve product utility and new function development.
The functional development of chairs is closely related to the development of materials.
The emergence of such as plastic material, its good chemical and physical properties quickly get the favour of the designer, the plastic is widely used in the design of the chair, not only greatly improve the efficiency of the use of a chair, at the same time extend the function of their use.
On the other hand, it is the relationship between the application of materials and the form of chairs.
Because different materials have different visual characteristics, once the material is applied to a specific product, it will have a direct visual impact on the product.
In addition, different materials have different processing methods and forming processes, and different processing technologies will have a direct impact on the product form.
Today, has been widely applied to the design and production of furniture materials are mainly wood chair (including solid wood and man-made board), copper, steel, aluminum and other metal materials, plastic, bamboo rattan, glass and other have a certain strength of natural material, synthetic material, etc.
Wood is one of the most common and traditional materials for making chairs, dating back to more than 4,000 years in ancient Egypt.
It was not until the mid-19th century that the development of the wooden chair made a breakthrough when the Austrian Michael Thonet (1796-1871) made a chair with laminates.
The 14th chair (also known as the wiener chair, ViennaChair), which began production in 1859, is the most representative work in the history of sonnet's furniture.
The chair is made up of six cranks with a diameter of 3 cm and 10 screws.
Its graceful curve, light and delicate form, gives the person the light sense of vision.
The biggest feature of the sonnet chair is the low price, suitable for mass production.
Even entering the 21st century, its quality is still recognized by many modern designers.
Another important feature is the convenience of transportation. Although they are non-folding design, they are easy to disassemble among the components, thus minimizing the transportation space.
It is the development of materials and the development of their characteristics that contains modern design factors.
Metal becomes furniture main material also is 19th century science and technology development innovation result.
In the first half of 1925, Marcel Breuer (1902-1981), a Hungarian, came up with the idea of designing a steel tube chair by seeing a bicycle handle.
The famous WassilyChair (1925).
This steel tube chair made of standard parts is the first design record of the world steel tubular chair.
It is welded with cold drawn steel tube, and the surface is treated with nickel plating. The part of contact with human body is made of canvas or leather, which reflects the characteristics of the material.
And brow design vassili Chair after success, he always continue to explore the progress development and utilization of bending pipe, and designed in 1929 the first thing that make full use of the principle of cantilever elastic Chair recreational Chair can be stacked - Seth card (Cesca Chair, 1928).
The steel tube furniture has the condition of mass mechanization production, and perfectly embodies the functionalist ideology of form compliance function.
Compared with the wooden chair has thousands of years, the metal material of morphology and the function of the chair has realized the great change, we have today for a wide variety of chair took a key step.
Steel, copper, aluminum and other metals are widely used in the design of chairs due to their excellent physical and chemical properties.
In the application form, it is divided into the theme frame of the chair by dividing the metal pipe, and the method of forming the supporting surface with wire weaving.
For example, Italian designer HarryBertoia (1915-1978) was designed in 1951 with a creative steel wire chair, the DiamondChair.
This design not only satisfies the functional requirements, but also is a kind of exploration of the form and space, as well as the pure sculpture works of bertolai.
With the development of modern science and technology, the application of wood in the design of chairs is becoming more and more mature due to the appearance of various wood-based panels.
Ever since the first since the birth of a steel chair abuse, metal is widely used in the design of the furniture, then the new materials and with its get new modelling is fundamental weaknesses, namely the indifference and shape steel too pure and simple.
A breakthrough for this problem is Finland architecture and furniture designer Aalto (Alvar Aalto, 1899-1976), he has a special preference for wood, he thinks "is suitable for the human body requires only organic material".
His outstanding contribution is to use birch to make moulded plywood to make wood a true industrial natural material.
These are first reflected in his masterpiece, the PaimioChair (1930).
The human body curve is the basis of its modeling, and it is made by gluing and moulding, which is made of birch moon.
It becomes the most obvious characteristic because the arc transition is not out of decoration, but is completely the need of structure and use function;
The three openings on the back of the back are not decorative, but are provided by the user.
The moulded plywood is used for chair design, which realizes the perfect unification of function and form, and has a warm humanism, which can be said to be another great change in the history of chair design.
The petal chair is another masterpiece of alto, which is a fully wooden overhang chair, with the comfort of the steel tube cantilever chair and the material properties of the soft wood.
The innovation and development of traditional furniture materials bring more selectivity to people.
The designers who used the plywood for chairs were also the American couple, Charlessand Ray Eames, and Danish designer ArneJacobsen (1902-1971).
The immers' success was the LCM series they designed in 1945-1946, and Jacques bisson's Ant Chair was also successful because of its three-dimensional plywood parts.
The synthetic materials used in the design of the chair are also of epoch-making significance.
In 1949, imus designed the DAR shell chair with the newly invented glass fiber plastic as the main material.
This kind of sperm form: the simple combination of the single piece of die and leg foot, the influence on chair design is very big, and the addition of color in new material adds endless vitality to the chair.
Taking this as an opportunity, many classic seats have been brought into view and enriched people's life.
Such as the designer, the czar ning (Eero Saarinen, 1910-1961) in 1947-1948 design for a Womb chair series, its main materials are of moulded plastic foam, latex foam on the surface of the package with a fabric soft mat, and bending bracket is polished chrome plated steel rod.
The design concept of the chair originates from the analysis of human body comfort, and fully embodies the modern aesthetic feeling.
Another work by sarinin, the Tulip chair series, which was designed in 1955-1956, created a new field of furniture design in the 20th century.
This series of chairs consists of three parts: the aluminum alloy base, the upper body of a molded fiberglass plastic, and the foam sitting with the fabric.
It is the full use of the new material characteristics to realize the change of this chair form.
VernerPantor, Denmark (1926-?)
It is another design guru who has built a tree with new materials for chairs.
He is exploring new materials in the process of the design of the potential created many expressive works, such as the design in 1960, he made the "S" type of stacking chair, also known as "east chair", it with glass fiber reinforced plastic disposable molding, chic modelling, colour is gorgeous, has strong sculpture, still enjoys a high reputation, many museums of the world.
Finland contemporary design master library card polo (Yrjo Kukkapuro, born in 1933) began in 1959, and finally completed in 1964, the "card road 412 chair" is regarded as the most comfortable chair, its main material is the steel strengthen glass fiber, also used the full use of the principle of human body engineering design, realize the perfection of the function of the chair.
Plastic is the best way for designers to express design ideas because of their perfect plasticity.
Another example is Eero Aarnio, the romanticist who is contemporary with the design guru, "art as Ben", and was born in 1932.
In 1968, he designed the "ingot chair".
This chair to the traditional design of frame, the factors such as the legs together, colourful, modelling is vivid and interesting, the most typically reflects the sixties and seventies of the 20th century free romantic flavor of life, as one commentator put it, "you can sit on it don't have to stand up and adjust position, and this kind of furniture is never damaged your carpet."
His extraordinary experience of sitting provides a special comfort.
Any piece of design work can reflect the design concept of designers in different degrees, and the aesthetic orientation of the society, and if designers want to express some thoughts to the people, by the works convey cultural characteristics, and the People's Daily life most closely furniture products are naturally become their most beneficial communication tools.
In the 1960s and 1970s, various materials were widely used by designers in the design of chairs.
These materials have the advantages that many natural materials cannot match, such as light, cheap, bright color, easy to take shape.
Italian designers have always led the world in this respect.
By four young Italian designer to design the blowing "Chair" (Blow Chair) is the first batch production of inflatable Chair, it is made from polyvinyl choride (PVC), air flushing became a sofa Chair, after and before the air flushing volume is very small, easy to carry.
Its anti-traditional furniture and orthodox modern furniture pursue the concept of high quality and everlasting, with "use up to throw away, with new generation old" design attitude expresses a short time of the heart.
It was like a baseball glove, a chaise lounge, and the famous Sacco chair.
The Sacco chair is an artificial leather bag chair filled with polyethylene particles, which is light and comfortable, and can be selected by the user in many different sitting positions.
These are the representative works of the Italian popper furniture design, which is rich in furniture materials, which enables designers to express their "anti-establishment" and "create fashion" design concept.
In addition to the main furniture materials mentioned above, all kinds of materials that may be applied have been used by designers, and they have been designed to be extraordinary and extraordinary.
For example, two chairs with glass as the main material.